The pictograph for woman, as seen above became. Written language was the product of an agrarian society. These societies were centered around the cultivation of grain.
Only about years old in England—and embattled from the start—its rise to preeminence has been striking. After sparse beginnings in seventeenth-century England, novels grew exponentially in production by the eighteenth century and in the nineteenth century became the primary form of popular entertainment.
Elizabethan literature provides a starting point for identifying prototypes of the novel in England. Although not widespread, works of prose fiction were not uncommon during this period.
Possibly the best known was Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia, a romance published posthumously in The novel also owes a debt to Elizabethan drama, which was the leading form of popular entertainment in the age of Shakespeare. The first professional novelist—that is, the first person to earn a living from publishing novels—was probably the dramatist Aphra Behn.
Concurrent with Behn's career was that of another important early English novelist: This religious author's Pilgrim's Progress, first published inbecame one of the books found in nearly every English household.
In the second half of the seventeenthcentury, the novel genre developed many of the traits that characterize it in modern form. Rejecting the sensationalism of Behn and other early popular novelists, novelists built on the realism of Bunyan's work. Defoe's name, more than that of any other English writer, is credited with the emergence of the "true" English novel by virtue of the publication of The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
In the work of these three writers, the realism and drama of individual consciousness that we most associate with the novel took precedence over external drama and other motifs of continental romance.
Contemporary critics approved of these elements as supposedly native to England in other genres, especially in history, biography, and religious prose works. A number of profound social and economic changes affecting British culture from the Renaissance through the eighteenth century brought the novel quickly into popular prominence.
The broadest of these were probably the advances in the technology of printing in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries which made written texts—once the province of the elite—available to a growing population of readers.
Concurrent changes in modes of distribution and in literacy rates brought ever increasing numbers of books and pamphlets to populations traditionally excluded from all but the most rudimentary education, especially working-class men and women of all classes.
As the circulation of printed material transformed, so did its economics, shifting away from the patronage system characteristic of the Renaissance, during which a nation's nobility supported authors whose works reinforced the values of the ruling classes.
As the patronage system broke down through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, authors became free agents in the literary marketplace, dependent on popular sales for their success and sustenance, and thus reflecting more and more the values of a predominantly middle-class readership.
The demand for reading material allowed a greatly expanded pool of writers to make a living from largely ephemeral poetry and fiction. These monumental changes in how literature was produced and consumed sent Shockwaves of alarm through more conservative sectors of English culture at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
A largely upper-class male contingent, reluctant to see any change in the literary status quo, mounted an aggressive "antinovel campaign. The early targets of these attacks were those writers, including Behn, Eliza Haywood, and Delarivier Manley, who had produced original English prose "romances" based on the conventions of the French style.
At the same time, however, more women in particular were writing novels that made a display of decorum and piety, often reacting to detractors who charged that sensationalistic tales of adventure and sexual endangerment had the potential to corrupt adult female readers and the youth of both sexes.
The outcome of this campaign was not the demise of the novel, but the selective legitimation of novels that displayed certain, distinctly non-romantic traits.
These traits became the guidelines according to which the novel as a genre developed and was valued. Most venerated by this tradition are the three leading eighteenth-century male novelists: Defoe, Richardson, and Fielding. Modern students of the novel are often unaware of the tumultuous controversy that attended its first steps at the end of the seventeenth century.
For the most part, feminist scholars have been responsible for generating the recovery of the novel's earliest roots and for opening up discussion of its cultural value in its many different forms.Etymology Essay.
History and Production of Coffee and its Presence in the United States polysemantic word. A historical dictionary (the Oxford Dictionary, for instance) is primarily concerned with the development of the English vocabulary. It arranges various senses chronologically, first comes the etymology, then the earliest meanings.
The primary influences of the US Constitution were John Locke, Montesquieu, the Bible, Greek philosophy, and the Freemasons. In the top image, George Washington, who presided over the convention, is the figure standing on the dais.
The Origins of the Cold War, – Although the alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union had brought victory in World War II, wartime cooperation meant glossing over many serious differences between the two. Preserving American Freedom, a Historical Society of Pennsylvania digital history project funded by Bank of America, explores how Americans have interpreted and fought for their freedoms from the s to the present and how these freedoms have shaped America's history.
Dec 27, · Bacon’s importance in the history of English prose is also due to his naturalisation of a new genre in English. We are referring to the essay. He borrowed the concept of the essay from Montaigne, the French Writer, whose Essais appeared in , seventeen years before the .
This chapter on the development of tort law in the 19th century covers the uses of tort law, the structure of tort law, the problem of vicarious liability, and the use of juries in tort cases and damages awarded.